By Athena R Kolbe MSW and Dr Royce A Hutson PhDA new study has just been released by the Wayne State University Human Investigations Committee based in London.It was also published in the journal The Lancet, a British scholarly journal. Knowing the importance of such document, CSMS Magazine believes it would be of great interest to our readers, who might otherwise be unaware of such pertinent study, to have an opportunity to read it. Because of the lack of a graphic system on the site, it might be difficult to read the table. Because of the length of the report, we had to split it in two parts.Restaveks, in particular, are victims in two disturbing ways. First, restaveks are often relegated to second-class citizenship and in many ways could be considered modern-day child slaves. Few attend school and many often work in labor-intensive activities that would be judged as human rights abuses by international standards.22 Secondly, this second-class status seems to make them more vulnerable to sexual exploitation by others, although respondents might have been more likely to report abuse of restaveks than abuse of other children in the household, because of the restavek’s perceived status as household property. Criminals and unknown assailants were the most cited perpetrators of sexual abuse. Improvements in law enforcement, vigorous prosecution of perpetrators, and increased awareness about child sexual abuse through public education campaigns could decrease the rate of such abuse substantially.23 Rapes by police officers present a different challenge. HNP officers and other official government security forces reportedly committed almost one in eight rapes. As with murders, we believe that a reordering and retraining of the police force in Haiti might be necessary to address this problem. Identification and prosecution of police officers who commit sexual offences should be a priority for the new administration. Threats of death, bodily harm, sexual violence were common and came not only from criminals, but also from both the HNP (and other government security forces) and foreign troops. The most commonly identified perpetrators of death threats, besides criminals, were UN troops. Of the UN troops identified, half were from Brazil or Jordan. Brazilian and Jordanian soldiers were also noted by respondents for issuing the majority of physical threats and threats of sexual violence by foreign soldiers. These findings support media reports24 of abuse by UN peacekeepers, particularly Brazilian25 and Jordanian troops.26 The retraining of some peacekeeping soldiers seems to be necessary. Non-governmental organisations, churches, and women’s organisations might need to establish coordinated services to meet the needs of sexual assault survivors. The number of rape victims shows the overwhelming need for psychological, medical, and social support services. Culturally appropriate therapeutic interventions should be developed, especially for vulnerable populations such as children and elderly victims. Medical services should be offered to victims of torture and other physical and sexual assaults. Extensive research already exists on the most effective ways of providing such services to victims, their families, and their communities through the establishment of neighbourhood clinics, public-health programmes, and peer intervention projects. Haitians should be able to access free or affordable medical services to resolve problems caused by human rights violations. The newly elected government of Rene Preval, the UN leadership in Haiti, and social service non-governmental organisations need to take concrete measures to investigate the extent of human rights violations throughout the country. Understanding the extent and severity of the abuses experienced by individuals and communities can provide the necessary information for development of programmes to address the health consequences and alleviate the emotional suffering of victims. The frequency of human rights violations, and especially the prevalence of sexual violence against women, demands a serious and thorough response from the international community, the new Haitian government, and non-governmental organisations working in the region. The new administration should take steps to stop any ongoing human rights abuses through various domestic and international systems.ContributorsA Kolbe was principally responsible for survey instrument design, hiring, training, and overseeing the interview staff, leading the study teams, coordinating all logistical aspects of the study, and data entry and organization. R Hutson was principally responsible for data analysis and data interpretation. The authors were jointly responsible for sampling design and preparation of the manuscript.Conflict of interest statementWe declare that we have no conflict of interest.AcknowledgmentsWe thank the School of Social Work at Wayne State University for their material support for this survey. Many thanks and remembrances go to Marla Ruzika (1977–2005) for her technical assistance with the GPS methodology and human rights investigation protocols. We also acknowledge and thank the interviewers who risked grave danger to complete the surveys in this troubled region, Bart Miles at the Wayne State University School of Social Work for his insightful editorial comments, Nomi Klein for her professional data entry and organization, and the United States Embassy-Political Section, Port-au-Prince, Haiti, for assistance with the mapping of Port-au-Prince.
1. Bender B. Haiti violence is seen as worsening. The Boston Globe (Boston) Oct 23 2004; 8.2. Duff L. Death of democracy in Haiti In: , Phillips P, ed. Censored 2006: the top 25 censored stories. New York: Seven Stories Press, 2005: 368-389.3. Lindsay R. More die in Haiti’s streets. The Toronto Star (Toronto) Nov 7 2004; 2.4. Dupuy A. From Jean-Bertrand Aristide to Gerard Latortue: the unending crisis of democratization in Haiti. J Lat Am Anthropol 2005; 10: 186-205.5. US State Department. Country report on human rights practices in 2005: Haitihttp://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61731.htm(accessed Mar 6, 2006).6. Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch world report 2005http://hrw.org/wr2k5(accessed Mar 28, 2006).7. Amnesty International. Haiti: Perpetrators of past abuses threaten human rights and the reestablishment of the rule of lawhttp://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR360132004?op…(accessed Mar 14, 2004).8. Freedom House. Press release of March 31, 2005http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=70&releas…(accessed Sept 1, 2005).9. Griffin TM. Haiti human rights investigation. Miami: University of Miami School of Law, 2004:.10. DeSanty JA, Flock BE, Applegate RD. A GIS-based technique for randomly selecting sample units on the landscape. N J Applied For 2001; 18: 42-44.11. Perry B, Gesler W. Physical access to primary health care in Andean Bolivia. Soc Sci Med 2000; 50: 1177-1188.12. Roberts L, Lafta R, Garfield R, Khudhairi J, Burnham G. Mortality before and after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: cluster sample survey. Lancet 2004; 364: 1857-1864. Abstract | Full Text | PDF (252 KB) | CrossRef13. Dueck J, Guzman M, Verstappen B. HURIDOCS events standard formats: a tool for documenting human rights violations. Versoix: HURIDOCS, 2001:.14. Constitution of the Republic of Haiti, article 26http://www.haiti.org/constitu/title03.htm(accessed May 2, 2006).15. Amnesty International. Breaking the cycle of violence: a last chance for Haiti. London: AI Publications, 2004:.16. Institut Haitien de Statistique et d’Informatique. Recensement Général de la Population et de l’Habitat, Aout 2003. Port-au-Prince: Institut Haitien de Statistique et d’Informatique, 2003:.17. Human Rights Watch. Haiti: recycled soldiers and paramilitaries on the marchhttp://hrw.org/2004/02/27/haiti7677_txt.htm(accessed Mar 28, 2006).18. Copelon R. Gendered war crimes: reconceptualizing rape in time of war In: Peters J, Wolper A, eds. Women’s rights, human rights: international feminist perspectives. New York: Routledge, 1995: 197-214.19. Duff L, Bernstein D. Haiti: the untold story In: , Phillips P, ed. Censored 2005: the top 25 censored stories. New York: Seven Stories Press, 2004: 272-283.20. Lunde D, Ortmann J. Sexual torture and the treatment of its consequences In: , Balo M, ed. Torture and its consequences: current treatment approaches. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992: 310-331.21. Somerfelt T. Child domestic labor in Haiti: characteristics, contexts and organization of children’s residence, relocation and work. Oslo: FAFO Institute for Applied Social Science, 2002:.22. Anderson L, Kelley EJ, Kinnunen ZK. Restavek: child domestic labor in Haiti. Minneapolis: Minnesota Lawyers International Human Rights Committee, 1990:.23. Putnam FW. Ten-year research update review: Child sexual abuse. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2003; 42: 269-278. MEDLINE24. Buncombe A. Peacekeepers accused after killings in Haiti. The Independent (London) Jul 29 2005; 33.25. British Broadcasting Corporation. Brazil report. UN troops accused of rights violations in Haitihttp://www.bbc.com/index.htm(Nov 22, 2005).26. Buncombe A. UN admits Haiti force is not up to the job it faces. The Independent (London) Jul 30 2005; 30.The Lancet can be reached at: www.thelancet.com